18th 1700-1775 http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/ 18th 1700-1775 Romney, Shepherd Girl (Little Bo-Peep), 1778, Philadelphia http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=179920745 179920745 English or Flemish, Bifrons Park in Kent, c 1700, New Haven, MC http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=100812513 100812513 English or Flemish, Bifrons Park in Kent, c 1700, New Haven, MC http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=123984821 123984821 English or Flemish, Bifrons Park in Kent, c 1700, New Haven, MC http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=100812512 100812512 Watteau, Mezzetin, Met, detail http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=123983204 123983204 Desportes, Still Life, 1720s, Met http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=123983203 123983203 Desportes, Still Life, 1720s, Met http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=123983202 123983202 Chardin, Chrysler Museum, Norfolk The Chrysler Museum an excellent glass collection, with lots of Art Nouveau works http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=66848319 66848319 Chardin, Still-Life with Hare, detail, Philadelphia http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=99405472 99405472 Chardin, Scullery Maid, 1738, Corcoran Gallery http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=146600557 146600557 Lancret, Woman with a Servant, detail, Boston African servants staring in awe at beautiful white noble women combines the Medieval-Renaissance theme of the worship of female beauty with European racial and social hierarchies. http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=67807224 67807224 Lancret, The Swing, 1730-35, Cincinatti http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=128110219 128110219 Lancret, The Swing, 1730-35, Cincinatti http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=128110218 128110218 Carriera, Lady with a Parrot, C1730, pastel, Chicago, detail http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=146521251 146521251 Vallayer-Coster, Still-Life with Lobster, Toledo http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98576350 98576350 Duplessis, Fire Screen, detail, Walters Art Gallery http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=99436241 99436241 Garnier, La Rose mal defendu, http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=123983718 123983718 Lopez, St. Sebastian Tended by Irene, 1798-180, Getty http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=97716233 97716233 Brent, Endymion, 1756, Worchester http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=108791649 108791649 Largilliere, Portrait of the Count ee Hergh, detail, Mt. Holyoke College Museum http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98576352 98576352 Largilliere, Portrait of the Countess de Hergh, detail, Mt. Holyoke College Museum http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98576353 98576353 French, Portrait of an Artist, c. 1735, Chicago This portrait of an unidentified female artist may be unfinished because the palette does not yet contain any pigments. By contrast, the canvas is not completely blank as the painter's shadow falls across it, forming a ghostly self-portrait. http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=146521252 146521252 French, Portrait of an Artist, c. 1735, Chicago http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=146521253 146521253 Agesci, (formerly ascribed to Greuze), Woman Reading Letters of Abelard and Eloise, Chicago http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=99436242 99436242 Pannini, Art Gallery, detail, Boston MFA This giant painting of an imaginary art gallery is full of sculptures by Bernini. http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=66848321 66848321 Piranesi, detail, Piazza San Pietro This is how the nobility traveled locally when they were on the Grand Tour. http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=113402178 113402178 Piranesi, Prisons 1, c. 1748, detail http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=147185798 147185798 Panini, detail of Capricchio with a View of the Forum, 1741, Yale http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=141274511 141274511 Panini, detail of Capricchio with a View of the Forum, 1741, Yale http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=141274512 141274512 Tiepolo, Armida and the Sleeping Rinaldo, Bewitched by Love, 1745, Chicago The story comes from Tasso's epic, "Jerusalem Liberated" (1575) which recounts the chivalric adventures of the Christian knight, Rinaldo. Despite its late medieval setting, Tasso's poem is heavily based on classical literature, especially the subplot whereby the beautiful island enchantress, Armida, bewitches the young hero and makes him a prisoner of love in her fragrant garden. Here Tasso updated Homer's Odysseus ensnared by Circe and Calypso, as well as other classical accounts of heroes waylaid by love such as Achilles among the Lycomedes, Antony and Cleopatra, Hercules and Omphale, Aeneas and Dido, Mars and Venus, and Adonis and Venus. Like Achilles, Rinaldo is eventually shamed by his fellow soldiers and leaves the "feminine" world of private dalliance and pleasure to fulfill his heroic, "masculine" destiny in the public world of combat and politics. The theme was popular in Renaissance and Baroque court art such as Van Dyck in part because it allowed viewers to have their cake and eat it too,. Male viewers could vicariously enjoy the pleasures of love while flaunting a manly distance from all such effeminizing dalliance. (Tasso compared the love-struck Rinaldo to Narcissus.) Female viewers could enjoy fantasies of seducing a handsome nobleman while admiring his heroic departure to greater glory and a nobler love. As with Van Dyck's painting now in Philadelphia and earlier Venetian paintings by Veronese of Mars or Adonis sleeping blissfully in the lap of Venus, Tiepolo took full advantage of his subject to create a male sleeping beauty. With his head tipped up as if for a kiss, Tiepolo's Rinaldo was served up primarily to female viewers just as the n nude figure of Armida drew in male spectators. Like Van Dyck''s painting before it, Tiepolo's Rinaldo also appealed to male viewers happy to contemplate such masculine sensuality. http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=146521256 146521256 Tiepolo, Armida and the Sleeping Rinaldo, Bewitched by Love, 1745, Chicago The story comes from Tasso's epic, "Jerusalem Liberated" (1575) which recounts the chivalric adventures of the Christian knight, Rinaldo. Despite its late medieval setting, Tasso's poem is heavily based on classical literature, especially the subplot whereby the beautiful island enchantress, Armida, bewitches the young hero and makes him a prisoner of love in her fragrant garden. Here Tasso updated Homer's Odysseus ensnared by Circe and Calypso, as well as other classical accounts of heroes waylaid by love such as Achilles among the Lycomedes, Antony and Cleopatra, Hercules and Omphale, Aeneas and Dido, Mars and Venus, and Adonis and Venus. Like Achilles, Rinaldo is eventually shamed by his fellow soldiers and leaves the "feminine" world of private dalliance and pleasure to fulfill his heroic, "masculine" destiny in the public world of combat and politics. The theme was popular in Renaissance and Baroque court art such as Van Dyck in part because it allowed viewers to have their cake and eat it too,. Male viewers could vicariously enjoy the pleasures of love while flaunting a manly distance from all such effeminizing dalliance. (Tasso compared the love-struck Rinaldo to Narcissus.) Female viewers could enjoy fantasies of seducing a handsome nobleman while admiring his heroic departure to greater glory and a nobler love. As with Van Dyck's painting now in Philadelphia and earlier Venetian paintings by Veronese of Mars or Adonis sleeping blissfully in the lap of Venus, Tiepolo took full advantage of his subject to create a male sleeping beauty. With his head tipped up as if for a kiss, Tiepolo's Rinaldo was served up primarily to female viewers just as the n nude figure of Armida drew in male spectators. Like Van Dyck''s painting before it, Tiepolo's Rinaldo also appealed to male viewers happy to contemplate such masculine sensuality. http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=146521257 146521257 Tiepolo, Madonna of the Rosary with Saints Dominic and Hyacinth, 1730-35, Chicago http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=146521258 146521258 Tiepolo, Rinaldo Leaving Armida, 1742-45, Chicago, detail In this detail, Rinaldo is shamed by fellow soldiers into abandoning Armida and recovering his masculine destiny as a warrior. Yet even here, Tiepolo cannot help contrast the older, bearded warriors flanking Rinaldo with the hero's perfect, youthful beauty and feminine elegance. Here we can see the triumph of eighteenth-century refinement, grace, and "feminine" beauty within the sphere of courtly masculinity, a trend equally visible in French Rococo painting by Watteau, Boucher, Lancret, and others. http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=146521259 146521259 Tiepolo, Madonna, c. 1740, Washington DC National Gallery http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=153491448 153491448 French, Fan with a Garden Party, C1750, Ringling web http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=150358664 150358664 French, Fan with a Pastoral Dance, C1750, Ringling web http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=150358665 150358665 Greuze, Jupiter and Aegina, 1767, Met http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=141274513 141274513 Greuze, Jupiter and Aegina, 1767, Met http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=141274514 141274514 Greuze, Jupiter and Aegina, 1767, Met http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=141274750 141274750 Greuze, Penitent Mary Magdalen, detail, Chrysler Museum, Norfolk http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=99405473 99405473 Lagrenee, Pygmalion and Galatea, 1781, Detroit detail http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=159042306 159042306 Vernet, Morning, 1760, Chicago Vernet's Morning reveals the later 18th-century landscape tradition out of which Friedrich developed his later Romantic seascape compositions. Friedrich borrowed Vernet's compositions in which prominent beholders stand with their backs to the real spectator and gaze into a hazy infinity of picturesque voyaging. If mid-eighteenth-century Europe saw the mature development of the Grand Tour with its focus on classical and Renaissance monuments in Italy, later eighteenth-century travel culture expanded the Grand Tour by including a wider range of Gothic monuments in Northern Europe and a search for sublime landscapes in Germany, the Alps, the mountains outside Florence, and the Amalfi coast. With its wistful reverie and pair of kindred spirits before a hazy seascape where boats voyage off into a mysterious infinity (itself indebted to Claude's harbor scenes with sunsets), Vernet's Morning anticipates the new interest in landscape contemplation and interior musing seen in later eighteenth travel literature such as William Beckford's "Dreams, Waking Thoughts, and Incidents" (1783). Friedrich took this landscape tradition and deepened its removal from the picturesque mundane and momentary by removing genre elements, heightening sublime contrasts of light and dark, near and far, replacing familiar sunsets with more eerie moon light, and enlarging the introspective beholders in the foreground. http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=146521260 146521260 Vernet, Morning, 1760, Chicago Vernet's Morning reveals the later 18th-century landscape tradition out of which Friedrich developed his later Romantic seascape compositions. Friedrich borrowed Vernet's compositions in which prominent beholders stand with their backs to the real spectator and gaze into a hazy infinity of picturesque voyaging. If mid-eighteenth-century Europe saw the mature development of the Grand Tour with its focus on classical and Renaissance monuments in Italy, later eighteenth-century travel culture expanded the Grand Tour by including a wider range of Gothic monuments in Northern Europe and a search for sublime landscapes in Germany, the Alps, the mountains outside Florence, and the Amalfi coast. With its wistful reverie and pair of kindred spirits before a hazy seascape where boats voyage off into a mysterious infinity (itself indebted to Claude's harbor scenes with sunsets), Vernet's Morning anticipates the new interest in landscape contemplation and interior musing seen in later eighteenth travel literature such as William Beckford's "Dreams, Waking Thoughts, and Incidents" (1783). Friedrich took this landscape tradition and deepened its removal from the picturesque mundane and momentary by removing genre elements, heightening sublime contrasts of light and dark, near and far, replacing familiar sunsets with more eerie moon light, and enlarging the introspective beholders in the foreground. http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=146521261 146521261 Falciatore, Concert in a Garden, C1750, Detroit http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=159042303 159042303 Falciatore, Concert in a Garden, C1750, Detroit http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=159042304 159042304 Falciatore, Concert in a Garden, C1750, Detroit http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=159042305 159042305 Reynolds, Upper Class Women Dressing up as Cottagers, 1788, Detroit Pastoral clothing was fashionable among the aristocracy since the early he early seventeenth century when books of ladies fashion appeared entirely devoted to shepherdess outfits. Needless to say, this trend expanded in the 18th century, especially after 1760 when Rousseau's pastoral novels allowed aristocratic and bourgeois women to project themselves into a virtuous and innocent rustic world. Although men also took up this trend, they were less likely to dress as shepherds. Gender also informs the idea of compassionate projection and domesticity, both of which appear in Reynolds' portrait. None of this sympathy undermined clear demarcations of class as seen in Falciatore's "Concert in a Garden" (one slide up inn this album) where social elites converse politely and play court music while an anonymous gardener passes quietly in the distance. At a time when Historical Portraiture in mythological or historical guise was fashionable among courtly elites (as seen in the work of Reynolds himself), this portrait of upper class woman as cottagers offers an unusual alternative, seemingly repudiating all grandiose self-images. At the same time, we should note that Historical Portraiture in the 18th century generally eschewed traditional absolutist role playing in which nobles appeared as conquering heroes, gods. and emperors. After 1700, male rulers preferred to appear as themselves. Female Historical Portraiture continued in large part because the traditional roles favored were already largely innocent and pastoral (Venus, Diana, Muses, Nymphs). http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=159042307 159042307 Hoppner, The Little Gardener, late 18th, Detroit http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=159044060 159044060 Vernet, Palazzo Farnese at Caprarola, 1746, Philadelphia http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=179921571 179921571 French, (Scevres) Elephant Head Vase, 1757, Chicago http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=195492890 195492890 Bell after Hogarth, The Reward of Cruelty, 1750, woodcut The unclaimed bodied of executed criminals were commonly employed in anatomical theaters well into the 19th century. Here the cadaver still has a hangman's noose around his neck. http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=200759661 200759661 Bell after Hogarth, The Reward of Cruelty, 1750 The unclaimed bodied of executed criminals were commonly employed in anatomical theaters well into the 19th century. Here the cadaver still has a hangman's noose around his neck. http://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=200759662 200759662