16th Italy https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/ 16th Italy Michelangelo's David Guards the Palazzo Vecchio, the town hall of Florence https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=97529111 97529111 Michelangelo, Florentine Pieta, detail https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=66830252 66830252 Michelangelo, Moses, detail https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98773484 98773484 Michelangelo, Moses, detail https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98773483 98773483 Michelangelo, Moses, detail https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=66830151 66830151 Michelangelo, Dying Slave, Louvre https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=99062967 99062967 Michelangelo, Dying Slave, Louvre https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=99062969 99062969 Michelangelo, Dying Slave, Louvre https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=99062968 99062968 Correggio, Jupiter and Antiope, detail, Louvre https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=67807215 67807215 Italian, after Giorgione, Rape of Europa, Chicago Giorgione's lost Rape of Europe is known only through a mid-seventeenth century copy by Teniers, and this Italian painting, made after the Teniers. Not surprisingly, Giorgione treats the rape as a pastoral idyll. Titian later transformed it into a sea pastoral, imitating the new maritime pastoral cranked out by humanist poets seeking to invent new forms of pastoral poetry. Most mythological rapes take place in idyllic pastoral settings and are seen in classical literature more as romances. https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98849366 98849366 Giorgione, Allendale Nativity, detail, Washington https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=122190307 122190307 Giorgione, Allendale Nativity, detail, Washington https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=122190308 122190308 Bandinelli, Pieta, Florence https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=113402396 113402396 Bandinelli, detail, Pieta, Florence The artist's own tomb monument with skulls at the four corners (see next image) https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=113402394 113402394 Bandinelli, detail, Pieta, Florence Skulls decorate the four corners of the artist's tomb monument for himself. https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=113402395 113402395 della Casa, Baccio Bandinelli, 1544-47 https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=113402397 113402397 della Casa, Baccio Bandinelli, 1544-47 The cod piece is one of many Renaissance images symbolizing creative power and fecundity in phallic terms. https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=113402398 113402398 della Casa, Baccio Bandinelli, 1544-47 https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=113402400 113402400 della Casa, Baccio Bandinelli, 1544-47 https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=113402399 113402399 Giambologna, Lion Attacking a Horse, Walters Art Gallery Derived from ancient Roman sculpture where it was commonly used as ornament on sarcophagi, the Lion Attacking a Horse returned in Italian Renaissance court art as a variation on the courtly theme of hunting. The power of the lion to destroy other beasts also worked well to allegorize the lion-like power of Renaissance princes. Late eighteenth-century artists reinterpreted this theme replacing the courtly politics implied in earlier representations with a new proto-Romantic expression of the sublime. No longer the king of beasts safely integrated into an aristocratic "scale of nature," the violent lion now expressed a savage, fearful, pitiless nature. For more on the sublime lion, see my essay posted on this site under ESSAYS BY PERIOD / 18th CENTURY. https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=100342208 100342208 workshop of Giovanni della Robbia, Adam and Eve, c. 1515, Walters Art Gallery https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=99398569 99398569 workshop of Giovanni della Robbia, Adam and Eve, c. 1515, Walters Art Gallery https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=99398570 99398570 Lotto, Venus and Cupid, detail, Met https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98853720 98853720 Lotto, Venus and Cupid, detail, Met https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98853719 98853719 Lotto, Allegory of Virtue and Vice, detail, Washington https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=97624694 97624694 Lotto, Allegory of Virtue and Vice, detail, Washington https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=97624690 97624690 Cambiaso, Venus and Cupid, detail, Chicago A rare example of Venus as a good mother, modeled after a Madonna and Child. Other examples include Veronese's fresco in the Villa Barbaro (where conjugal imagery breaks out everywhere) and a woodcut illustration in the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (1499). https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98849367 98849367 https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=100706548 100706548 Veronese, Venus, Mars, and Cupid, detail, Met A rare Venus, Mars, and Cupid as a family group, grounded in the republican political values of Venice. In contrast to the more licentious art of the sixteenth-century Hapsburg, Medicean, and French courts, sixteenth-century Venice occasionally patronized a more moderate, republican imagery where sexuality was restrained by conjugal themes. Veronese's frescoes at Villa Barbaro are another good example and include Venus nursing Cupid as if she were just another Venetian pastoral Madonna and Child. Here Mars is disarmed by love, tamed and civilized in line with ideas found in Ovid and in Venetian humanist literature (Bembo's "Gli Asolani"). Subordinated to Venus, Mars becomes almost another child at her breast. The sculptured satyr looking down from crumbling cornice and the horse tied up and restrained by a second Amor both image the wild, sexual freedom Mars has surrendered in submitting to the bonds of matrimony (allegorized literally in the Cupid below who ties Mars to Venus). In praising Mars and Venus in nuptial terms or in marriage poems, classical and Renaissance writers like Claudian and Ficino ignored the fact that Mars and Venus were not married. Mantegna overlooked this inconvenient fact in his Parnassus when he allegorized the conjugal taming of Mars by Venus for Isabella d'Este. https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98956427 98956427 Titian, Venus and the Lutenist, detail. Met https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=99157748 99157748 Titian, Portrait of Granvelle, detail, Kansas City https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=127916411 127916411 Moroni, Madonna with St. Michael and Donors, Richmond This unusual painting transforms the warrior angel, St. Michael, who defeats Satan at the end of time and weighs all human souls into a loving example of the Christian devotion shown more impersonally in the married couple below. Instead of a severe figure of Apocalyptic warning (like Rogier van der Weyden's Michael in the Beaune Last Judgment) , Moroni's Michael is softened and feminized into an example of affective devotion and becomes more of a helpful intercessor. https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=100372528 100372528 Salviati, Florentine Nobleman, detail, St. Louis Art Museum https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=127916408 127916408 Salviati, Florentine Nobleman, detail, St. Louis Art Museum The River God Arno and the Lion of Florence. His urn gushes water onto the allegorical lily of Florence, recalling Florentine humanist legends of Fiorenze / Florentia named after the flowers of Venus (legends dating back at least to Boccaccio - see my essay on Botticelli's Primavera). Florence can be understood as Flower City. Since Roman antiquity (Horace, etc.), the flourishing and rebirth of cities was conventionally allegorized with images of Spring, Golden Age, and agricultural or floral growth. Here the themes of masculine fertility and feminine flourishing come together to flatter one of the city's ruling class, set against a fertile green canopy. https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=127916409 127916409 Salviati, Florentine Nobleman, detail, St. Louis Art Museum https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=127916410 127916410 Giulio Romano, Bathsheba at Her Toilette, Garden Loggia, Palazzo del Te, Mantua The Old Testament figure of Bathsheba never primped before a mirror until this painting. The setting is borrowed from the pagan imagery of Venus at the Mirror, already popular among Italian rulers and noblemen. Set in a lush courtly garden, the fresco plays on the real garden just outside this loggia where Federico II Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua, dallied with his real mistress. The courtly theme of the love garden is repeated in a fresco on the same loggia ceiling which depicts King David spying on Bathsheba (next slide in the Art Gallery). The villa as a whole was heavily decorated with erotic mythological scenes painted by the same artist. So it comes as no surprise to find Romano introducing courtly erotic values even in this Old Testament scene. The theme of sensual beauty is tripled in the many nymph-like attendants. Thirty years earlier, Mantegna had already moved Samson and Delilah into a courtly love garden for Federico's II father. But that painting still retained a strong moralizing flavor consistent with the Biblical fable about the downfall of a great man through sensuality. Romano's painting ignores all such Biblical morality - despite the great sins committed by King David in murdering Bathsheba's husband and ordering her into his bed. No such Christian morality disturbs this erotic courtly idyll. This painting set the tone for later Renaissance images of the same subject by Veronese and others. https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=139761898 139761898 Giulio Romano, Bathsheba at Her Toilette, Garden Loggia, Palazzo del Te, Mantua Kind David admires the naked Bathsheba, almost always clothed in late medieval art, but routinely stripped from the 15th century on. Here David is celebrated as one of the great lovers from all time, not as a terrible sinner - all in line with the hedonistic values of the High Renaissance courts. . https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=139761899 139761899 Italian After Michelangelo, The Dream of Human Life https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=140954443 140954443 Italian After Michelangelo, The Dream of Human Life https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=140954445 140954445 Peruzzi, Cephalus and Procris, Farnesina, Sala dei Prospectiva https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=140954446 140954446 Peruzzi, Poets on Mt. Parnassus, Farnesina, Sala dei Prospectiva https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=140954448 140954448 Veronese, Mystical Marriage of St. Catherine of Alexandria, 1547-50, Yale https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=141274970 141274970 Palazzo Farnese, rear garden facade, Rome Carracci's Farnese Ceiling frescoes of the Lovers of the Gods are in the 2nd-floor room overlooking the garden https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=142250194 142250194 garden behind the Palazzo Farnese in Rome https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=142250195 142250195 Venetian, Allegory with a Satyr Uncovering a Sleeping Nymph, c. 1530, National Gallery, Washington, DC https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=142433216 142433216 Bassano, Orpgeus Taming the Animals, 1580-92, Detroit https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=159041655 159041655 Luini, Young Woman, 1510-30 https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=159041656 159041656