16th Mannerism https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/ 16th Mannerism Cellini, Perseua and Medusa, Piazza della Signoria, Florence https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98345480 98345480 Cellini, Perseus and Medusa, detail, Florence https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=66830253 66830253 Cellini, Perseua and Medusa, detail https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98232861 98232861 Cellini, Perseua and Medusa, detail https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98232863 98232863 Bandinelli, Duomo Museum, Florence https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=99930131 99930131 Bandinelli, Herciules and Cacus, detail, Piazza della Signoria, Florence https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98773481 98773481 Cellini, The Nymph of Fontainebleau, detail, Louvre https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98232860 98232860 Giambologna, Rape of the Sabines, Florence https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98345481 98345481 Giambologna, Rape of the Sabines, Florence https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=97529114 97529114 Giambologna, Cosimo I de' Medici, Piazza della Signoria, Floerence https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=140735037 140735037 Giambologna, Ferdinando de' Medici, 1601-8 Piazza Annunziata looking down to the Duumo, Florence https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=140735041 140735041 Giambologna, Ferdinando de' Medici, 1601-8 Piazza Annunziata, Florence https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=140735040 140735040 Plaque with Bees Allegorizing Monarchy on the base of Giambologna, Ferdinando de' Medici, 1601-8 Piazza Annunziata, Florence The inscription translates, "One Rule Alone". Natural science knew nothing about queen bees and assumed that any insect group this well organized around a single bee must be one of nature's many monarchies. Courtly hierarchies projected themselves into nature at all levels from the Four Elements to the animal world. For more on bees and the courtly cosmos, see my essay on Cosmos in the unfinished book on landscape - on this web site. https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=140735038 140735038 Plaque with Bees Allegorizing Monarchy on the base of Giambologna, Ferdinando de' Medici, 1601-8 Piazza Annunziata, Florence The inscription translates, "One Rule Alone". Natural science knew nothing about queen bees and assumed that any insect group this well organized around a single bee must be one of nature's many monarchies. Courtly hierarchies projected themselves into nature at all levels from the Four Elements to the animal world. For more on bees and the courtly cosmos, see my essay on Cosmos in the unfinished book on landscape - on this web site. https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=140735039 140735039 Italian, Copy after Giambologna, Hercules and Antaeus, Chicago, early 17th https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=146261296 146261296 Rossi, Venus and Adonic, detail, Grotto in the Boboli Gardens https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98232859 98232859 Giambologna, Bathing Venus with Satyrs, detail, fountain in the Grotto in the Boboli Gardens The satyr theme is everywhere in sixteenth-century European art and literature as an open image of male fantasy. As such, it parallels the "wild man" theme and the hundreds of new images depicting mythological rape. https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98232864 98232864 Bronzino, Chapel of Eleonora da Toledo, Palazzo Vecchio https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=141710751 141710751 Bronzino, Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, detail, S. Lorenzo, Florence As the leading painter in mid-fifteenth-century Florence, Bronzino did what many Italian painters had been doing in church art since Michelangelo: he painted as many eroticized male nudes as possible. Ignoring the traditional approach to his subject, he transformed an early Christian martyrdom into a display of his own modern artistry, based heavily on Michelangelo and on the classical male nude, here imaged in two pagan sculptures higher up in the composition. He also added a maternal family group, a secular Madonna and Child, as it were, to appeal to female viewers in this important Florentine church. This pious fig leaf does not obscure the pleasure taken in dozens of naked men who twist and turn to show off their bodies from every possible viewpoint. It was Renaissance religious art like this which led to an official crackdown by the Counter-Reformation after 1540. https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98550205 98550205 Bronzino, Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, detail, S. Lorenzo, Florence https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98550206 98550206 Bronzino, Portrait of Cosimo I de' Medici as Orpheus, Philadelphia https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=179918073 179918073 Bronzino, Portrait of Cosimo I de' Medici as Orpheus, Philadelphia https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=179918074 179918074 Allori, Francesco de' Medici, 1561, detail, Chicago https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=97271663 97271663 El Greco, St. Jerome, detail, Met https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98853665 98853665 El Greco, Penitent Peter, detail, Philips Collection https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=100623085 100623085 El Greco, Laocoon. detail, Washington https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=97624692 97624692 El Greco, Laocoon. detail, Washington https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=97624693 97624693 El Greco, The Opening of the Fifth Seal, detail, Met https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=150464304 150464304 El Greco, The Opening of the Fifth Seal, detail, Met https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98956670 98956670 El Greco, The Opening of the Fifth Seal, detail, Met https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=150464303 150464303 French, Venus and Cupid, detail, San Francisco, School of Fontainebleau https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=97529112 97529112 School of Fontainebleau, Woman at Her Mirror, detail, 1550-70, Worchester https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=111861159 111861159 School of Fontainebleau, Woman at Her Mirror, detail, 1550-70, Worchester https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98233410 98233410 School of Fontainebleau, Woman at Her Mirror, detail, 1550-70, Worchester https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=111861160 111861160 Tintoretto, Rape of Lucretia, c. 1580, Chicago https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=146261298 146261298 Tintoretto, Rape of Lucretia, c. 1580, Chicago https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=146261297 146261297 Tintoretto, Musical Contest Between Apollo and Pan, c. 1545, Hartford https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=200759318 200759318 Salviati, Portrait of a Young Nobleman from Florence, 1544, Ringling Museum https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=150356504 150356504 Salviati, Portrait of a Young Nobleman from Florence, 1544, Ringling Museum https://www.socialhistoryofart.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=150356505 150356505