Social History of Art


Essays by Period                                        (Microsoft Word Files)


Baldwin Triumph as a Mode in Medieval Christian Art 

("Triumph as a Mode" is a published article.)

Baldwin Virgin Mary as Byzantine Imperial Ideology

Baldwin Late Medieval Christianity An Overview

A broad historical survey of the following topics: 1) The Rise of the City, 2) The New Urban Monastic Preaching Orders, 3) Urban University Culture, 4) Church Piety and Processions, 5) The Rise of Confraternities and Civic Piety, 6) Eucharistic Piety and Bodily Worship, 7) Affective Piety and Mystical Marriage, 8) The Cult of the Virgin, 9) The Cult of the Saints, 10) Last Judgment, Triumph of Death, and Penitential Piety, 11) Late Medieval Aesthetics: Sacred Geometry and Material Splendor

Baldwin Late Medieval 2 Prejudice and Persecution 8 15

Baldwin Camerino's Madonna of Humility with a Naked Eve

Baldwin Anti Semitism in Giottos Scrovegni Chapel

Baldwin Giottos Life of St Francis.doc

Baldwin The Triumph of Death in Pisa

Baldwin Giovanni da Modena Last Judgment and Hell in Bologna

Baldwin Simone Martinis Frontispiece to Petrarch's Virgil

(classical pastoral imagery and landscape in  late medieval art)

Baldwin Lorenzettis Last Supper with Kitchen Scene

Baldwin Siege of Love in Late Medieval Art

Baldwin The Knight of Love in the Manesse Codex

15th Century

Baldwin Fortune in Western Art 1500-1700



Baldwin Humanism An Outline Aug 12 2015

Baldwin Renaissance Humanism A Sea Change in European Culture Sept 2 2015

(broad overview, greatly revised and shortened in 2013 to 13 pages)

Baldwin Renaissance Humanism Part 2 History and Fame   

(a detailed look at Renaissance humanist history)

Baldwin Allegory in Renaissance and Baroque Art Nov 2

Baldwin Outline of Golden Age Idea in the Renaissance   (one page outline)

Baldwin Perspective and Humanism in Renaissance Art Jan 2013

Baldwin One Point Perspective in One Page

Baldwin Mantegnas Dead Christ and Perspectival Devotions.

Baldwin Brunelleschis Pazzi Chapel and Alberti's San Andrea Feb2011

Baldwin Michelozzos Medici Palace and the Burgher Republic

Baldwin Nanni di Bancos Four Martyrs

Baldwin Donatellos David Civic Humanism and Sexuality in Republican Florence Feb2011

Baldwin Donatellos and Botticellis Judith and Holofernes

Baldwin Gentile da Fabrianos Adoration of the Magi

Baldwin Fra Angelico and the Monastic Early Renaissance

(on his frescos at San Marco, especially the Annunciations) 

Baldwin Gozzoli Procession of the Magi and Lippi Mystic Nativity

Baldwin Sacred Garden and Wilderness The Example of Domenico Veneziano

Baldwin The Fountain of Youth in Manta

Baldwin Civic Humanism in Masaccios Brancacci Chapel

Baldwin Piero della Francesca True Cross Frescoes in Arezzo

Baldwin Ghirlandaios Old Man and Grandson as Humanist Consolation and Familial Paradise

Baldwin Botticellis Madonna Magnificat

Baldwin Botticellis Woman in White and the Renaissance Courtly Beauty Aesthetic

Baldwin Botticellis Primavera An Outline Feb 2011

Baldwin Botticellis Birth of Venus and Primavera as Renaissance Mythology Mar2012

Baldwin Pico Medicean Humanism and the Renaissance Allegory of Nature Feb2012

(Renaissance taste for allegory - useful background for Botticelli's Primavera and other mythological works)

Baldwin Botticellis Mystic Crucifixion and the Gendered Apocalypse of Savonarola

Baldwin Botticellis Mystic Nativity and the Impact of Savonarola

(Mystic Nativity revised Feb 2012)

Baldwin Triumph in Italian Renaissance Art

Baldwin Perugino Christ Giving the Keys to Peter

Baldwin Ghirlandaios Sassetti Chapel

Baldwin Gender and Politics in Pollaiuolo Hercules Nessus and Dejanira

Baldwin Mantegnas St Sebastian

Baldwin Bellinis Drunkenness of Noah

Baldwin Bellini's Madonna of Humility

Baldwin The Child in Early Renaissance Art



Baldwin Memory Imagery in Late Medieval and Renaissance Religious Art

Baldwin Cultural Politics in the Limbourg Brothers Tres Riches Heures

Baldwin Limbourg Brothers Universal Worship of the Cross

Baldwin Limbourg Brothers Expulsion of the Rebel Angels

Baldwin Cosmic Politics in the Zoudenbalch Bible and the Limbourg Brothers Zodiacal Man

Baldwin World History Cosmic Order and Nature in Marmions Adam Eve

Baldwin Eucharistic Politics and Civic Harmony in Jan van Eycks Ghent Altar

Baldwin Burgher Piety and Devotio Moderna in Campins Merode Altar

Baldwin Textile Aesthetics in Early Netherlandish Painting

("Textile Aesthetics" is a published article.)

Baldwin Medieval Vision and Renaissance Perspective in Fouquets All Saints

Baldwin Fouquets Louis XI Founds the Order of St Michael

Baldwin Fouquet Melun Diptych

 Baldwin Compassion and Gender in Rogier van der Weydens Descent from the Cross Feb17

Baldwin Rogier van der Weydens Last Judgment in Beaune

Baldwin Memlings Martin van Nieuwenhove and the Devotional Diptych

Baldwin Devotional Aesthetics and Mary of Burgundy

Baldwin Court Gardens in 14th and 15th Century Northern Art

Baldwin Schongauers Madonna in a Rose Garden in Colmar

Baldwin Geertgen Night Nativity and Darkness as Inner Vision Feb 2015

Baldwin Print Culture and Lay Piety in the Ars Moriendi

Baldwin Boschs Death and the Miser as Ars Moriendi and Anti Clerical Satire

Baldwin Blindness Vision and Art in Boschs Haywain Jan 2016

Baldwin Animals and the Imago Dei in Boschs Garden of Earthly Delights

16th Century


essay on Fortuna (Lady Fortune) in Renaissance and Baroque Art is found at the beginning of ITALY 15th Century, above

Baldwin Leonardos Innovations An Outline.docx

Baldwin Leonardo An Introduction 

Baldwin Leonardos Virgin of the Rocks and Mona Lisa

Baldwin Leonardos Vitruvian Man and Madonna of Rocks An Outline

Baldwin Da Vinci Critique 3 Pages

Baldwin Da Vinci Code Critique 13 Pages

Baldwin Triumphal Aesthetics in 16th Century Art

Baldwin Rhetoric and High Renaissance Art An Outline

Baldwin Michelangelos Bacchus and Roman Pieta

Baldwin Michelangelos David

Baldwin Michelangelos Sistine Chapel

Baldwin Michelangelos Last Judgment

Baldwin Michelangelos Tomb of Julius 2

Baldwin Michelangelos Medici Chapel

Baldwin Michelangelos Campidoglio

Baldwin Palladios Teatro Olimpico

Baldwin Raphaels Stanza della Segnatura and Papal Politics Feb 2013.doc

Baldwin Raphael Stanza del Costantino

Baldwin Raphael Tapestry Cartoons in the Sistine Chapel

Baldwin Raphael Fornarina

Baldwin Lottos Portrait of Lucrezia Valier

Baldwin Bronzinos Portraits Eleonora de Toledo Ludovico Capponi Cosimo de Medici Laura Battiferri

Baldwin Titians Assumption of the Virgin, Colorism and Politics in Venice

Baldwin Titian Bacchanal of the Andrians Mar 5 2011

Baldwin St George and the Dragon Perseus and Andromeda and the Renaissance Damsel in Distress rev Feb 22

Baldwin Correggios Venus and Mercury Instructing Cupid

Baldwin Renaissance and Baroque Formal Garden

Baldwin Outline of Pastoral Subjects in Renaissance Art

Baldwin Arcimboldos Fantasia and the Imperial Cosmos

(The essay also discusses the politics of erotic mythology in the court of Rudolph II.)

Baldwin Mannerism and Bronzino

Baldwin The Major Traditions for El Greco

(See ESSAYS THEMATIC for paper on the Italian Renaissance Formal Garden.)



essay on Fortuna (Lady Fortune) in Renaissance and Baroque Art is found at the beginning of ITALY 15th Century, above

Baldwin Grunewalds Isenheim Altar

Baldwin Durers Apocalypse

Baldwin Durer Drawing from Nature and Entrepreneurship

Baldwin Durer Works from 1498 to 1514

Baldwin Devotion, Vision, and Fame in Durer's Holy Trinity woodcut

Baldwin The Reformation and Art        (broad overview)

Baldwin Durers All Saints and Four Apostles

(These two works display Durer's Catholic style and later Protestant manner)

Baldwin Holbein Part 1 Early Portraits

Baldwin Holbein Part 2 French Ambassadors

Baldwin The Burgher Self in Bruegel

Baldwin Money and Burgher Culture in 16th Century Northern Europe

Baldwin Charity and Poor Relief in 16th Century Northern Europe

Baldwin Peasants and Bruegels Fall of Icarus

("Bruegel's Peasants" is a published article.)  

Baldwin Introduction to Book on Bruegels Landscape

(broad introduction to Renaissance landscape art)

Baldwin Bruegel's Months as Burgher Cosmos

Baldwin Burgher Values in Bruegel's Tower of Babel

Baldwin Economic and Political Issues in Bruegel's Census at Bethlehem

Baldwin Bruegels Mad Meg and the Sexual Politics of Luxuria

Baldwin Bruegels Elck as Economic Allegory

Baldwin Renaissance Art Genius and the Market Economy

Baldwin Food Money and Nature in Pieter Bruegel

Baldwin Language and Power in Bruegels Netherlandish Proverbs

Baldwin Problem of Classical Forms in 16th Century Netherlandish Art

Baldwin Humanism Fame and Triumph in Sixteenth Century French Art

Baldwin Gender Beauty and Love in Sixteenth Century French Art


17th Century


Baldwin Absolutism April 4

Baldwin Rubens Four Philosophers

Baldwin Rubens Massacre of the Innocents

Baldwin Rubens Perseus and Andromeda Classical Mythology and Late Medieval Chivalry

Baldwin Van Dycks Images of Great Men as the Apotheosis of Flemish Art

Baldwin Aesthetics of Absolutism in Van Dyck's Court Portraits

(discusses five portraits: 1) Van Dyck's Charles I on a Horse,  2) George Villiers and Katherine Manners as Adonis and Venus, 3) Rachel de Ruvigny as Fortuna, 4) Henriette Maria, Queen of England, and 5) George Digby and William Russell.)

Baldwin Dutch 17th Century Art and Society An Introduction

(The above essay complements the one below - I will combine them eventually.)

Baldwin Dutch Baroque Art, An Outline Jan2014

Baldwin Dutch Baroque Still Life Apr2011

Baldwin Vermeer Kalf Fabritius Oct 5 Expanded

(The full title of this essay is: "Vermeer's Girl with the Pearl Earring, Kalf's Still-Life with Nautilus, and Fabritius' The Goldfinch: Humble Subjects and High Aestheticism in Later Dutch Baroque Art")

Baldwin Fabritius Goldfinch Oct 5 Expanded

(Due to popular interest in Donna Tartt's novel and Fabritius' The Goldfinch, I have separated out my short essay on this painting from the previous essay on Vermeer, Kalf, and Fabritius.)

Baldwin Rembrandts Protestant Beggars

("Rembrandt's Protestant Beggars" is a published article based on my Ph.D. thesis. ) 

Baldwin Rembrandts Art of Paradox

("Rembrandt's Art of Paradox: is a short, revised version of "Rembrandt's Protestant Beggars" enriched with some additional thinking.)

Baldwin Rembrandt's Annunciation to the Shepherds

(Rembrandt's Protestant lowliness fused with burgher social disdain toward terrified, "ignorant" peasants)

Baldwin Rembrandts Italian and Classical Sources

("Rembrandt's Italian and Classical Sources" is a short, published article.)  

Baldwin Rembrandts Touch of Love 1 Prodigal Son

Baldwin Rembrandts Touch of Love 2 Jewish Bride

Baldwin De Brays Family Portrait As Antony and Cleopatra

Baldwin Love Letters in Vermeer and Ter Borch.doc

Baldwin Vermeers Allegory of Painting

Baldwin Vermeer Money Music Art

(section on Vermeer from my unfinished book project on "Music, Class, and Aesthetic Values in Northern Renaissance and Baroque Art" 

Baldwin Vermeer Concert Trio

Baldwin Ter Borch Lady at the Mirror

Steen and the Comedy of Modern Dutch Life



Baldwin The Counter Reformation and Art                     (broad overview)

Baldwin Counter-Reformation and Art An Outline

Baldwin Artemisia Gentileschi's Judith and Holofernes

Baldwin Guardian Angel in Catholic Baroque Art Sept27

Baldwin Bernini Piazza San Pietro

Baldwin Carraccis Farnese Ceiling

Baldwin Caravaggios Calling of Matthew and Conversion of Saul

Baldwin Caravaggios Madonna of Loreto

Baldwin Berninis Ecstasy Of Teresa

Baldwin Berninis Ludovica Albertoni

Baldwin Poussins Venus Lamenting Adonis

Baldwin Poussins Stoic Landscape

Baldwin LaTours Penitent Magdalen and Catholic Penitential Piety

Baldwin Versailles and Absolutism Jan 2015



Baldwin Velasquez Minerva and Arachne OUTLINE


19th Century


Baldwin Impressionism as Artistic Revolution May 2011
Baldwin, Monet's Water Lilies as Symbolism Painting / email me for this essay


Baldwin Van Goghs Starry Night

(French Tahitian romance important for Gauguin's Tahitian imagery)